PHOTOS: Nairobi’s Jomo Kenyatta International Airport Opens Grand New Terminal 1A

JKIA Terminal 1A | KAA Facebook

JKIA Terminal 1A | KAA Facebook

The Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) Unit 4 (now dubbed Terminal 1A) project is finally complete, after close to 4 years of construction and over 9 years of planning and design.

The World Bank has been a critical partner in both the original planning and design of the extension of the Airport in 1972, and the refurbishment and construction of the new wing since 2005 that’s set to drastically increase the capacity of what’s widely considered the Air Hub of East and Central Africa.

Opened in 1958 by Sir Evelyn Baring, on behalf of the Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother who was delayed in Australia, JKIA was known as the Embakasi Airport, but later renamed Nairobi International Airport after Kenya gained independence. After President Kenyatta died in the late 70s, the Airport was again renamed in his honour.

ALSO READ: Architectural History of Nairobi, Kenya’s capital

Kenyan-Canadian Architectural firm Queen’s Quay Architects International and Mueller International won the consulting rights in 2004 to carry out future expansion requirements, by no means an easy feat for an International Airport that hadn’t received any development for at least a generation. In 2011 alone, it’s estimated that over 5 million passengers used JKIA, designed to carry at least half that human traffic.

kaa change

At a cost of Kshs 9.3billion, work on the expansion began, with the new Terminal 1A set to handle an additional 2.5 million passengers a year, as an extended parking area will fit about 1,500 more vehicles. Chinese firm Wu Yi Co were contracted in 2006 by the Kenya Airports Authority for construction and the project was meant to be completed in August 2013, but delayed until mid this year as furnishing materials were still being sourced and fitted.

ALSO READ: Africa and its magnificent Parliaments

KAA renamed each of the Terminals to keep in line with International standards and expectations, as the Arrival and Departure wings have completely been separated, a sigh of relief for Security. 32 check in counters, 7 boarding bridges and a completely automated baggage handling system are some of the features passengers expect to see at Terminal 1A. President Kenyatta, the late Jomo’s son, officiated over the opening of the new Terminal on July 7th 2014, as it will undergo a trial run for at least 2 weeks before a full-on service expected in August.

jkia over

jkia over 2

Design Elements of JKIA Terminal 1A | E3 blog

But this is just step one; in anticipation of an even more robust feature, the ground-breaking of the largest Airport terminal on the continent took place in December 2013 for the JKIA’s Greenfield Terminal. That needs a post on its own.

Images of the new Terminal via Kenya Airports Authority:

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Is a Building’s Design a Reflection of the Society?

A view of Nairobi

A view of Nairobi

I once read something written by Bob Moorehead; He said that, ‘The paradox of our time in history is that we have taller buildings but shorter tempers, wider freeways but narrower viewpoints.

‘We spend more, but have less, we buy more but enjoy less. We have bigger houses and smaller families, more conveniences, but less time. We have more degrees but less sense, more knowledge but less judgment, more experts, yet more problems, more medicine, but less wellness. We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values.

‘We have learned to make a living, but not a life. We have added years to life not life to years. We have conquered outer space but not inner space. We have done larger things but not better things. We have cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul. We have conquered the atom, but not our prejudice.’

So I started thinking, how true are these statements to the architect?

Architecture, I am told, requires that material, technology, light and shadows are manipulated in the most creative manner, in order to produce buildings and physical structures that are the cultural symbols of the places they are built. And this is true. Ask any archaeologist and they will tell you that the ruins of an ancient city are indispensable.

Roman Aqueduct | AKEONOS GROUP

Roman Aqueduct | AKEONOS GROUP

That reminds me of ancient Rome’s aqueducts and its latrine system, which is irrevocable proof that the Romans valued their hygiene. I wonder what our descendants will think of us a few centuries from now when they’re digging up our remains and find non-biodegradable paper-bags full of feaces: They would probably think the packing of feaces was quite fashionable then.

I daresay I would turn in my grave if my descendants misinterpreted our culture as such. However, 200 years from now, I think they would be shocked at the economic inequalities that exist in our current age. The paper bags would just be proof. I digress…

Click here to read the piece on gentrification in Nairobi

Architectural history is full of examples of man conquering the severest of odds to achieve what Vitruvius stated in the 1st Century AD: The principles of a good building are firmitas, utilitas and venustas (by the way I just put that in to impress my editor); the words are latin for durability, utility and beauty.

So clearly, buildings, as long as architects shall live, will continue to be more durable, more functional and more beautiful. Is this the condition of the people who use, live, design or work in these buildings? Is your personal legacy more durable? What is your gift to the World? Are you more useful? Are you more beautiful?

The American architect Louis Sullivan once said that “form follows function” (of course you may be aware that the statement is often credited to Horatio Greenough, but it was Sullivan who said it) and that statement is now a principle in architecture. It is also a principle (that should be) in life: just the same way that the shape of a building is based on its intended function or purpose, so should one’s life. Life should be shaped by purpose.

I like what Fidel Castro once said (he wasn’t referring to buildings) he said that “the ever more sophisticated weapons piling up in the arsenals of the wealthiest and mightiest can kill the illiterate, the ill, the poor and the hungry, but they cannot kill ignorance, illness, poverty or hunger. Man by nature surmounts complexities;

KCB’s Kipande House was the tallest building in Nairobi when Gurdit Singh designed it in the 1930s. 38 years  later, Solel Boneh & Factah completed the KICC, a building which gave a 360 degree panoramic view of Nairobi in 76 minutes.

Click here to read ‘an architectural history of the green city in the sun’

I will freely tell you this though: the same view of poverty, desperation, disease, inequality and crime that existed in 1935 is the same view that we now see from the KICC; it’s just at a different angle.

 

| The article is a guest post written for A Chiselled Cornucopia by my best buddie, Joseph Kongoro @josekongoro

The Significance and Magnificence of Buildings often Ignored

The Kenyatta International Conference Center | MY DESTINATION

The Kenyatta International Conference Center | MY DESTINATION

Robertson Davies once said that a truly great book should be read, in youth, again in maturity, and once more in old age; as a fine building should be seen by morning light, at noon and by moonlight.

I personally reckon a great building should be like love; exciting when it is new; dazzling when it is mature and satisfying and permanent when it grows old.

A great building, wrote Louis Kahn, must begin with the immeasurable, must go through the measurable means when it is being designed, and in the end must be unmeasured.

Let me first state here that I am not an addict of buildings; I am more of an unwilling enthusiast. My passion however, is history, and buildings are simply history cast in stone. You see if you look at any building; you can easily see the aspirations, the hopes and the achievements of a society; the Arc de Triomphe (in Paris) for example was commissioned in 1806 after Emperor Napoleon’s victory at Austerlitz.

Buildings glorify what a society deems to be glorious. In ages past,for instance, buildings immortalized conquests; ancient buildings like the Al Hambra remain testament to the Muslim domination of Europe. Today buildings like the Burj Khalifa try to recapture the Islamic renaissance. In today’s world, where wars are not fought in battle fields but in stock markets and through trade, has it ever occurred to anyone that banks tend to have some of the most imposing and elaborate buildings? London’s tallest building, the Shard, is owned by a consortium which includes the Qatar National Bank, QInvest and the Qatari Islamic Bank.

The Shard in London

The Shard in London

 

If you look at the list of the World’s tallest buildings it will occur to you that a majority of them have a relationship with banking, trade and finance.

Click here to read more on some of Africa’s, and the World’s, tallest buildings

Buildings also play another role; they tell you what a society considers moral or religious. A lot of buildings of note in ages past tended to be places of worship; Islam gave us Charminar and the Shah Mosque – Egypt gave us the Pyramids which played a religious role, Greece was decked by elaborate temples. Christianity provided numerous medieval churches; Isn’t it strange that brothels, for instance, have always been located at the dingy, dark areas since antiquity?

In short, what society is ashamed of cannot be cast in stone, meanwhile every city you can imagine has a tomb to an unknown soldier to celebrate virtues such as bravery or sacrifice.

Mount Rushmore is a sculpture that was intended to represent 150 years of American history; of those years, only Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt and Lincoln were chosen to have their faces on the rock; could you imagine the catastrophe if someone like George Bush Jr. was cast on that mountain?

The Taj Mahal in India | SANTABATA

The Taj Mahal in India | SANTABATA

 

The Taj Mahal was built during Shah Jahan’s empire and it was the high point of the Mughal dynasty, and it was attribute to the love of his life; his wife Mumtaz, who died while giving birth to their 14th child. Do you think he would have built it for some mistress?

Like Aldous Huxley once said – ‘Marble, I perceive, covers a multitude of sins.’

 

| The article is a guest post written for A Chiselled Cornucopia by my best buddie, Joseph Kongoro @josekongoro

Architectural Heartbeats For Nairobi in 2013

An artist's impression of the Villa Rosa Nairobi Kempinski

An artist’s impression of the Villa Rosa Nairobi Kempinski

A city is as vibrant as the intricacies of its society; the very basic way in which its culture, its populace, its recreation … and most of all its architecture interwove. In addition, the built environment has a subtle, yet omnipresent effect on the attitudes of its citizens: delicately yet comprehensively influencing the motion, mood, magnificence and mould of both nature and the artificial within the space.

The Europeans mastered the art of creating little ‘heavens on earth’ with cities which the rest of the globe envied for centuries. From the wealth and opulence of Paris, Florence and Monaco to the seemingly organic and monolithic yet pristine aisles of Barcelona and Athens. These bastions of the human populace held the batons of progress and development.

With the advent of the new world, the Americas, immigrants sought to replicate, and better, the places they called home by coalescing to create the ‘greatest nation on Earth’, the United States of America, and with it, the rise of globally enviable economic and commercial centres like New York, Chicago and Washington. This was of course enshrined in the never-ending reach for the skies which these buildings competed in with dizzyingly tall skyscrapers.

With the advancement of technology, came in the art and craft of innovation and what seem to be gravity-defying structures. And with the digital age came the rise and rise of Asia and the Middle East, pushing the envelope of the limitations of cities and their structures (while eliminating the restraint of money) to show the world that artificial wonders can indeed be created. That, coupled with the wealth, industry and ingenuity of its leaders and citizens, led to the establishment of cities such as the daring Emirate Dubai, the salacious Shanghai and tech savvy Singapore.

Impression of the JKIA Greenfield Terminus

Impression of the JKIA Greenfield Terminus

With the evident rotation of bragging rights for cityscapes, surely it’s time for the African continent to own a peace of the prime real estate? In a recent survey by the African Development Bank on the state of the continent in half a century, it was predicted that the population will have doubled to an estimated 2 billion people, overtaking the population of China or India: The highest fertility rates would be recorded in two regions: North and East Africa.

The billion shilling question then would be: what will the characters of our cities be in the future if we continue along a path of unplanned certainties and limiting mindsets. Cities are definitely here to stay, and with the same report predicting that the urban population of the African continent would most likely be around 80% by 2050, it’s a frightening thought to imagine what sort of metropolis’ will dot the African savannah from Cape to Cairo if the future isn’t well thought out.

Let’s put it into perspective for a moment – imagine informal settlements, haphazard systems of sewerage, water and electricity forging endlessly to create a mammoth mess of masses and muck. We’d see a grossly unplanned mess of a city of Nairobi, Kisumu or Mombasa which would soon grind to a halt simply owing to the fact that there was no foresight put in. There’s no way that a metropolis which seeks to position itself as not just a continental, but global, centre of prosperity should still be suffering under the whims of a mediocre transport system, sub-standard stadia and recreational facilities as well as ineffective governance.

Click here to read my piece on ‘Africa and her Parliaments’

In spite of all these flaws, the Kenyan capital is embracing its duty to its citizens with a barrage of developments adhered to making it a city of the future. Pundits may argue that Nairobi has quite a long way to go to match the flexing cities of the West, but if the Asians and Middle-Easterns could manage, and surpass what the Europeans have achieved in centuries (and the Americans in just over 200 years) in a barely a quarter of that time, then surely the African lions must roar their way out of the bushes into the concrete ideological and physical jungle.

The same AfDB Report 2011 sites key pillars of development as touching on the avenues of transport, infrastructure, healthcare and policies. Tied into this is the emergence of a hungry middle class with an insatiable economic appetite that could be the key to unlock not just the city’s but the country’s potential.

Shopping malls like the Junction, Westgate, Greenspan and Ridgeways have sprouted out of once upper class echelons, which are now middle class suburbias of Nairobi, creating focal facets of commerce which the city needs to replicate and enhance. The city opened its first railway station, Syokimau, since the pre-independence period and completed its first world-class super highway, Thika Road, a musingly mellifluous motorway that would make any Nairobian proud.

As 2013 begins, I’d like to highlight some of the architecturally marvellous projects which have got me excited to be a part of the shaping of our future:

Delta Towers, Westlands

Delta Towers, Westlands, Nairobi

Delta Towers, Westlands, Nairobi

The Green City in the Sun can now boast its very own Twin Towers, majestically rising over the once height-restricted electric avenue host of the capital. These solid concrete siblings are named ‘Delta Corner’ in what its aggressive Indian investors hope will be a leading address in the city.

The impression has already been made, with these imposing structures blanketing the entire West district of Nairobi while adding an idiosyncratic stamp of authority on what was before its inception, modest low rise buildings in earth shades of brown, white and beige. I cannot reiterate that the grey behemoth that is Delta Corner is both imposingly and honestly frightening, yet utterly impressive in its scale.

Offering about 18 floors of premium office space, each with floor-to-floor glass and conservative modern architecture, the Twin Towers are destined to be the talk of the town on launch.

Villa Rosa, Kempinski Nairobi

Artist's impression of the interior of the Moroccan restaurant at the Villa Rosa

Artist’s impression of the interior of the Moroccan restaurant at the Villa Rosa

Driving out of the city along Waiyaki Way, you’d be forgiven to think that the gigantic pink Florentine tower to your right just past the East and Central Africa Standard Chartered Bank building is a colossal mansion by some billionaire. Well, the truth of the matter is, Europe’s oldest luxury hotel group has come knocking, with the planned opening of this 10-floored 200 room and suite exotic monster.

It’s a tribute to continental European architecture, with Ionic pillars and gentle Italian arcs beautifying a characteristically rich facade which overlooks the plush suburbs to its immediate environs.

Click here to read my piece on ‘Of Princes and Palaces’

Within its marbled and wallpapered walls, the Villa Rosa will also host a penultimate Presidential Suite on its top floor and feature restaurants and cuisines from at least three continents. It will be interesting to see what this five-star offering will pull off, against the likes of neighbouring jewel princesses Nairobi Serena, the Sankara Hotel and the Sarova Stanley.

Terminal 4, Jomo Kenyatta International Airport

JKIA Greenfield Terminal

JKIA Greenfield Terminal

As with any other global conduit of air travel and economic indulgence, Nairobi seeks to spread the wings of its largest airport with the expansion of the region’s leading air hub.

Initially envisioned to be part of an ‘Airport Sub-city’ by some Qatari visionaries, equipped with hotels and other world-class amenities, presumably budgetary limitations made the idea comfortable with a fourth stretched out terminal and an enormous car park wing. This of course would be constructed in segments so as not to interfere with one of the region’s busiest airports.

Proposals for a Greenfield Terminal to help ease the millions of passengers that sail through the JKIA were approved by the KAA and if in fruition soon could add a smile and a tinge of relaxation on the commute: what with modern and glassy features meant to maximize the use of daylight, as well as cutting edge technology and monitoring systems to make the JKIA enviable yet again.

The expanded airport should be able to accommodate almost twice the number of aircraft it currently can… that’s 43 against 23, as well as offer improved lighting, delicate upgrades of other subordinate buildings as well as space for about 1,500 vehicles.

Other Best Laid Plans

World renowned British architectural firm Mackay & Partners are rumoured to have been contracted by Mara Properties to design a four star hotel overlooking the city’s most prized possession; its national park. Nairobi boasts being the only capital on the globe with the entirety of a national park in its environs and this new project could add a new stem of tourism, with proximity to the equally luxurious Ole Sereni which is based on a similar concept of game-watching right at the threshold of the airport.

The re-development and rejuvenation of the railway transport network should also serve to revive what was a  struggling colonial structure, which while critical to any metropolis, seemed defunct. But with modern trains and stations part of a blueprint plan by Kenya and Rift Valley Railways, the burden on Nairobi’s narrow roads could be eased.

A Height Above The Rest in Africa…

Federico Garcia Lorca once said ‘There is nothing more poetic and terrible than the skyscraper’s battle with the heavens that cover them’. It thus appears that man’s constant and consistent thirst to aid the ‘metal monster’ is certain to blot out the sky from the ground.

A show of might, in days long past, would have been wars fought on battlegrounds; with mighty displays of ammunition and combat tactics. But, in the world of today, supremacy is firmly stamped with rather convincing showcases of economic might and ideology.

The artificial rooftop of the globe, at first, may have been the famed pyramids on the Egyptian deserts, but this scope was swiftly replaced with both religiously and politically significant structures, such as churches and monuments.

The Washington monument for instance, cemented America’s significance to the world, towering over all other nations since its completion, for well close to a century before the European cathedrals, with their gothic and romanesque architecture, took the mantle of height.

Through the decades, the world’s superpowers, or those countries that sought their podium in the global arena, designed towers which subsequently matched their international position. North America, for instance, had a firm grip on Planet Earth, with her skyscrapers which majestically rose out of her prominent cities: Washington, Chicago and New York. To this day, and well into the future if predictions are anything to go by, the citizens of these bastions of glory, will delight in being residents of the world’s greatest cities.

The ‘Heavens’ on Earth

The roll of honour for the tallest structure on Earth, goes to the hungriest city of them all, Dubai, with its over 2700 foot Burj Khalifa, which convincingly towers over the rest of the globe from deep within the United Arab Emirates deserts. Here’s the video to prove it:

It’s dizzying to even mention this, but the Royal family of Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, have approved construction of an EVEN TALLER building than the Burj Khalifa, in Jeddah called the Kingdom Tower. Initially designed to stand at a height of about 1.6 kilometers into the sky, it was scaled down to 1000 meters, majorly because the geography of the area would not allow the unrealistic height.

The Kindom Tower (left) in Comparison to other projects and the Burj Khalifa (right)

The ‘King’ of the African Skies

It is then apparent, by silent consensus, that the greatest countries on continents across the globe, are also home to the very tallest.

In Europe for example, the British capital, London, now boasts the Shard building, elevated to a grand height of over 1,000 feet: it is the tallest of them all on the continent. Designed by Architect Renzo Piano, the marvel was opened well before this leading global city hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics, the greatest spectator sport on earth.

Towering above them all in Asia is the 1,667 ft Taipei 101 tower in Taiwan, though South Korean is fervently working on completing what is set to become the continent’s tallest  building, the Lotte Super Tower 123 (I have no idea what the obsession with numbers is) which should be opened in 2014.

Designed by Kohn Pedderson Fox, the tower will comprise a hotel, shops, apartments and offices, not only being owned by those who commissioned it be built, the Lotte Group, but also signifying South Korea’s aggressive economy and its desire to be marked as one of the leading nations on Earth.

The Carlton Centre, Johannesburg. Currently the Tallest building on the African continent

The King of Africa’s skies is, rather predictably, located in the capital city of the continent’s leading economy, South Africa, but it doesn’t even make it to the list of top 100 tallest buildings on the globe (shy of about 50 metres even).

The Carlton Center in downtown Johannesburg stands at 732 feet but is poised to surrender its title to an ambitious project dubbed Centurion Symbio-City which is underway in the country’s administrative capital Tshwane (formerly Pretoria).

Centurion Symbio – City

If and when complete, Centurion will enter the league of the top 20 tallest on Earth, standing at a whopping 110 stories which is just ahead of the Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois US but shy of the Petronas Towers in the Malaysian Capital, Kuala Lumpur.

East Africa’s Tallest Mammoth

The New Central Bank Tower (also known as Times Tower) happens to be the tallest structure in Eastern and Central Africa and is served by 10 elevators, comprising a 38-storey office tower, a 7-storey banking complex and an 11-split storey car park. The estimated total area covered is 60,000m2, all in reinforced concrete construction. This iconic building at the heart of the region’s financial and communication hub was designed by Architect James Njuguna Gitoho of Triad Architects for the Central Bank of Kenya and was completed in May 2000.

The building was designed to resist earthquakes and to repel all forms of forced entry into it’s main vaults, which of course was important to the Central Bank of Kenya, which commissioned its construction. Foundations for this mammon comprise 2 deep basements sitting on a reinforced concrete raft varying in thickness from 0.9m to 3.0m.

A key feature of the design, according to Times Tower’s structural engineers Howard Humphreys (K) Ltd, was to assess the seismicity of the area and to generate loading data to enable a computerized time-history analysis. This resulted in a safe yet economical seismic design that bore the Kenyan landmark.

Times Tower

Interesting to note is that Times Tower would not hold this prestigious title had plans by the Moi regime bore fruit in 1989 to construct the continent’s then tallest structure, a 60-storey headquarters at the heart of Uhuru Park to house the Kenya Times newspaper. This was in addition to KANU’s KICC, which at 28 storeys high, was the tallest structure in the region at the time.

This was an ill-timed and ill-placed project by all means, as Kenya was ‘enjoying’ and annual economic decline of -0.9% between the years 1980 – 1989. British architects had already designed the blueprints for the tower which would be built of concrete and sheathed in imported glass, aluminum and steel. It would have definitely put the ‘Green City in the Sun’ on the world map for at least a decade to come. All this would have cost the tax payer in excess of $200 million (adjustments over time on the currency changes apply on top of this).

The One Nairobi

There had been speculation from 2010 to 2011 about the British-owned international development company, Dubai-based the First Group, working on Africa’s tallest building, the One Nairobi, which would have stood at over 70 stories high (though the Centurion has far overshadowed this), but plans are believed to have been shelved, at least for time being, as investors are approached.

The One Nairobi would have been located in the Upper Hill area of Kenya’s capital and and undoubtedly boosted the country’s profile. The First Group are working on the One Kempinski Abuja which is meant to be ‘the epitome of high end living’ in Nigeria’s brand new capital city.

The Skies Ahead

It is therefore pertinent for Africa’s lions to literally RISE up to the occasion of vertical splendour in the race for the tip of the horizon. While struggling for economical advancement is critical to any country’s future, displaying this new-found status could also be instrumental to self-assertion and progress.

Though with the relatively tiny nation of Qatar planning to complete at least 300 new skyscrapers by the time it hosts the 2022 FIFA World Cup, where does that leave the African continent in the race?

Interesting to Note

Yemen had its very own ‘skyscraper city’ in the 2nd Century. Known as Shibam, each of the buildings were built from mud and rose on average to a height of about 8 stories each, mainly to protect the citizens from the desert raiders.

The Yemen ‘Skyscraper City’ of Shibam